Efektifitas Penggunaan Metode Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) Pada Pokok Bahasan Relasi Dan Fungsi Ditinjau Dari Motivasi Belajar Siswa Kelas VIII SMP Negeri Kab. Lamandau

ABSTRAK

Hendriyadi (S85089104), Efektifitas Penggunaan Metode Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) Pada Pokok Bahasan Relasi Dan Fungsi Ditinjau Dari Motivasi Belajar Siswa Kelas VIII SMP Negeri Kab. Lamandau. Tesis. Komisi Pembimbing I Prof. Dr. Budiyono, M.Sc. dan Pembimbing II Dr. Riyadi, M.Si. Surakarta: Program Studi Pendidikan Matematika, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta, 2011.

Penelitian ini bertujuan; (1) Untuk mengetahui lebih baik atau tidaknya prestasi belajar siswa dengan menggunakan metode pembelajaran kooperatif tipe STAD dibandingkan prestasi belajar siswa dengan menggunakan metode pembelajaran konvensional. (2) Untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya pengaruh tingkat motivasi belajar siswa terhadap prestasi belajar matematika. (3) Untuk mengetahui konsisten tidaknya perbedaan prestasi belajar siswa dari masing-masing metode pembelajaran yaitu kooperatif tipe STAD dan metode pembelajaran konvensional konsisten pada masing-masing tingkat motivasi belajar dan perbedaan prestasi belajar dari masing-masing tingkat motivasi belajar konsisten pada masing-masing metode pembelajaran yaitu kooperatif tipe STAD dan metode pembelajaran konvensional.
Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental semu dengan rancangan penelitian menggunakan faktorial 2 x 3. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa kelas VIII pada SMP Negeri se-Kabupaten Lamandau semester I tahun pelajaran 2010/2011. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara Stratified Cluster Random Sampling dengan hasil SMPN-1 Bulik dari kelompok tinggi dan SMPN-1 Sematu Jaya dari kelompok rendah. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah tes, angket dan dokumentasi. Instrumen tes digunakan untuk mengetahui prestasi belajar matematika pada materi relasi dan fungsi. Sedangkan instrumen angket untuk mengetahui motivasi belajar siswa. Sebelum tes dan angket digunakan, diuji validitas isi dengan validasi oleh validator, yang hasilnya semua soal tes dan angket sah digunakan sebagai instrumen penelitian. Instrumen tes terdiri 30 butir, setelah diuji reliabilitas dengan menggunakan KR-20, dihitung derajad kesukaran dan daya pembeda, yang memenuhi 25 butir untuk penelitian. Instumen angket terdiri 30 butir, setelah diuji konsistensi internal dengan menggunakan rumus Moment Produk dari Karl Pearson dan diuji reliabilitas dengan menggunakan rumus Alpha Cronbach dan diambil 30 butir untuk penelitian.
Sebelum eksperimen dilakukan, terlebih dahulu dilakukan uji keseimbangan rataan menggunakan uji t dan α = 0,05 diperoleh –1,97867 < tobs = -0,5962 < 1,97867 = t 0,025;108, sehingga semua sampel berasal dari populasi yang mempunyai kemampuan yang seimbang.
Uji prasyarat analisis variansi yang dilakukan adalah uji normalitas populasi dan uji homogenitas variansi populasi. Dengan menggunakan taraf signifikasi α = 0,05 diperoleh hasil sebagai berikut: (1) uji normalitas populasi dengan menggunakan metode Lilliefors, diperoleh Lobs = 0,1165 < 0,1184 = L0,05;56; Lobs = 0,0883 < 0,1206 = L0,05;54; Lobs = 0,1390 < 0,1437 = L0,05;38; Lobs = 0,1103 < 0,1292 = L0,05;47; Lobs = 0,1479 < 0,1730 = L0,05;25; sehingga semua sampel barasal dari populasi yang berdistribusi normal (2) uji homogenitas variasi populasi dengan menggunakan metode Barlett, diperoleh χ2obs = 1,9359 < 3,841 = χ 20,05;1 dan χ2obs = 5,8174 < 5,991 = χ20,05;2; sehingga semua sampel bearasal dari populasi yang mempunyai variansi yang sama.
Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis variansi dua jalan dengan ukuran sel tak sama. Dengan menggunakan taraf signifikansi α = 0,05 menunjukkan (1) terdapat pengaruh metode pembelajaran terhadap prestasi belajar matematika pada materi relasi dan fungsi (Fa = 21,3677 > 3,93244 = F0,05:1,104), (2) terdapat pengaruh motivasi siswa terhadap prestasi belajar matematika pada materi relasi dan fungsi (Fb = 53,6416 > 3,08371 = F0,05:2,104), (3) tidak terdapat interaksi antara metode pembelajaran dan motivasi siswa terhadap prestasi belajar matematika pada materi relasi dan fungsi (Fab = 2,9491 < 3,08371 = F0,05:2,104).
Dari hasil uji komparasi ganda dengan metode Scheffe̕ dan dengan melihat rataan marginalnya, dapat disimpulkan bahwa (1) siswa dengan metode pembelajaran kooperatif tipe STAD lebih baik prestasi belajarnya dibandingkan dengan siswa dengan metode pembelajaran konvensional (rataan 2 = 77,40741 > 70,07143 = rataan 1), siswa yang mempunyai motivasi belajar tinggi lebih baik prestasi belajar dibandingkan dengan siswa yang mempunyai motivasi belajar sedang (F1-2 = 67,9903 > 6,16742 = 2F0,05:2,104), dan siswa yang mempunyai motivasi belajar sedang memiliki prestasi belajar yang sama baik dengan mereka yang mempunyai motivasi belajar rendah (F2-3 = 5,8024 < 6,16742 = 2F0,05:2,104).

Kata kunci : Kooperatif Tipe STAD, Konvensional, Motivasi, Relasi dan Fungsi.

ABSTRACK

Hendriyadi, S85089104. The Effectiveness of the Use of Cooperative Learning Method of Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) Type on the Topic of Discussion of Functions and Relations Viewed from the Learning Motivation of the Students in Grade VIII of State Junior Secondary Schools, Lamandau Regency. Thesis. The First Commision Supervision is of Prof. Dr. Budiyono, M.Sc, and Dr. Riyadi, M.Si. The Graduate Program in Mathematics Education, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 2011.

The objectives of the research are to: (1) Investigate which students have better learning achievement between the students taught with the cooperative learning of STAD type and those taught with the conventional one; (2) Investigate which learning motivation has an effect on the learning achievement in Mathematics; (3) Investigate in each of the learning methods (the STAD type and the conventional one), which one has a better effect on the learning achievement in Mathematics, and both in each level of the learning motivations and each different level of the learning motivations which learning method has a better learning achievement in Mathematics between the STAD type and the conventional one.
The research used an experimental quasi method with the factorial design of 2 x 3. The population of the research was all of the students in Grade VIII of State Junior Secondary Schools in Lamandau regency in Semester I in the academic year 2010/2011. The samples of the research were obtained from two schools, State Junior Secondary School 1 of Bulik for the high learning motivation and State Junior Secondary School 1 of Sematu Jaya for the low learning motivation. The samples of the research were taken by using a stratified cluster random sampling. The data of the research were gathered through test, questionnaire, and documentation. The test was used to investigate the learning achievement in Mathematics with the topic of discussion of Functions and Relations. The questionnaire was used to investigate the students’ learning motivations. Prior to their use, the items of the test and questionnaire were validated, and all of them were valid. The items of the test were initially 30. After their reliability was tested by using KR-20 to investigate their difficulty level and differentiability, only 25 items taken for use. Similarly, the items of the questionnaire were 30, and all of them were taken for use after they were tested in terms of internal consistency by using Karl Pearson’s Product Moment formula and reliability by using Alpha Cronbach formula. In addition, prior to the experiment, the average balance was tested by using t test at the significance level of α = 0.05. The result of the test was – 1.97867 < tobs = -0.5962 < 1. 97867 = t0,025;108; so that all of the samples were from the population with the same ability. Furthermore, the normality and homogeneity of the population were also tested in the pre-requisite tests of variance at the significance level of α = 0.05. The results of the tests were as follows: (1) the result of the normality test by using Lilliefors’s method was Lobs = 0.1165 < 0.1184 = L0,05;56; Lobs = 0.0883 < 0.1206 = L0,05;54; Lobs = 0.1390 < 0.1437 = L0,05;38; Lobs = 0.1103 < 0.1292 = L0,05;47; and Lobs = 0.1479 < 0.1730 = L0,05;25; so that all of the samples were from the same population with a normal distribution; (2) the result of the homogeneity test by using Bartlett’s method was χ2obs = 1.9359 < 3.841 = χ20,05;1 and χ2obs = 5.8174 < 5.991 = χ20,05;2; so that all of the samples were from the population with the same variance. The data of the research were analyzed by using a two-way analysis of variance with unequal cells at the significance level of α = 0.05.
The results of the data analysis are as follows: (1) there is an effect of the learning methods on the learning achievement in Mathematics with the topic of discussion of Functions and Relations as indicated by (Fa = 21.3677 > 3.93244 = F0,05:1,104), (2) there is an effect of the students’ learning motivations on the learning achievement in Mathematics with the topic of discussion of Functions and Relations as shown by (Fb = 53.6416 > 3.08371 = F0,05:2,104), and (3) there is not any interaction of effect of the learning methods and the learning motivations on the learning achievement in Mathematics with the topic of discussion of Functions and Relations as pointed out by (Fab = 2.9491 < 3.08371 = F0,05:2,104).
Based on the multiple comparison test with the Scheffe’s test and base on the marginal average, conclusions are drawn that (1) the students taught with the cooperative learning method of STAD type have a better learning achievement than those taught with the conventional one (average 2 = 77.40741 > 70.07143 = average 1), (2) the students with the high learning motivation have a better learning achievement than those with the medium learning achievement as shown (F1-2 = 67.9903 > 6.16742 = 2F0,05:2,104), and (3) the students with the medium learning motivation have a better learning achievement than those with the low learning motivation as pointed out by (F2-3 = 5.8024 < 6.16742 = 2F0,05:2,104).

Keyword : Cooperative STAD Type, Conventional, Motivation Functions and Relations