Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kecepatan Adopsi Inovasi Pertanian Di Kalangan Petani Di Kecamatan Gatak Kabupaten Sukoharjo

Yos Wahyu Harinta. NIM. S.630306014. Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kecepatan Adopsi Inovasi Pertanian Di Kalangan Petani Di Kecamatan Gatak Kabupaten Sukoharjo. Pembimbing: 1. Prof. Dr. Ir. Totok Mardikanto, MS. 2. Dr. Ir. Suprapti Supardi, MP.

Pada dasarnya, sebagai individu petani tidak mempunyai kemampuan untuk mengubah keadaan usaha taninya. Oleh karena itu, keberadaan bantuan dari luar sangat diperlukan, baik secara langsung dalam bentuk bimbingan dan pembinaan usaha maupun tidak langsung dalam bentik intensif yang dapat mendorong petani menerima hal-hal baru dalam mengadakan tindakan perubahan. Untuk tercapainya perubahan-perubahan perilaku petani demi terwujudnya perbaikan mutu hidup perlu disampaikan melalui kegiatan penyuluhan. Oleh karena itu, pesan-pesan pembangunan pertanian yang disuluhkan harus mampu mendorong atau mengakibatkan terjadinya perubahan-perubahan yang memiliki sifat “ pembaharuan “ yang biasa disebut dengan istilah “inovativeness”. Untuk meningkatkan produksi padi di Kabupaten Sukoharjo diterapkan cara Pengelolaan Tanaman dan Sumber Daya Terpadu (PTT). Dimana PTT adalah suatu pendekatan ekoregional yang ditempuh untuk meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman pangan dengan memperhatikan prinsip-prinsip efisiensi. Dalam pengembangan inovasi teknologi dengan pendekatan PTT, digunakan prinsip sinergisme, yaitu bahwa pengaruh komponen teknologi secara bersama terhadap produktivitas lebih tinggi dari pengaruh komponen tehnologi sendiri-sendiri. Komponen unggulan PTT Padi antara lain adalah : Penanaman Varietas unggul ; Pemupukan sesuai dengan kebutuhan : pengendalian Hama dan Penyakit tanaman secara terpadu dan Penanganan proses panen dan pasca panen dengan baik. Gatak merupakan salah satu kecamatan yang ada di Kabupaten Sukoharjo, dengan 12 Desa dan semua Desa terdapat Kelompok Taninya.
Tujuan Penelitian ini adalah : untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kecepatan adopsi inovasi pertanian di kalangan petani di Kecamatan Gatak Kabupaten Sukoharjo dan untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat hubungan antar faktor-faktor tersebut terhadap kecepatan adopsi inovasi pertanian di kalangan petani di Kecamatan Gatak Kabupaten Sukoharjo.
Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian survey .yaitu Penelitian yang mengambil sampel dari satu populasi dan menggunakan kuesioner sebagai alat pengumpulan data yang pokok. Unit analisanya adalah individu. Penelitian survey ini merupakan survey penjelasan (explanatory/ cormfirmatory ) yaitu untuk menjelaskan hubungan kausal dan pengujian hipotesa (Singarimbun dan Effendi, 1989 : 3). Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kecamatan Gatak Kabupaten Sukoharjo. Waktu penelitian dilakukan bulan Agustus – Desember 2009. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah Kelompok Tani di Kecamatan Gatak Kabupaten Sukoharjo dan sebagai Sampel adalah Pengurus dan anggota Kelompok Tani di Kecamatan Gatak Kabupaten Sukoharjo. Metode pemilihan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah: Metode purposive sampling yaitu teknik pengambilan sampel mendasarkan pada maksud-maksud tertentu dalam memilih anggota sampel (Djarwanto, 2001 : 18). Sampel yang diteliti dalam penelitian ini adalah Petani yang menjadi Pengurus dan anggota Kelompok Tani di Kecamatan Gatak Kabupaten Sukoharjo, terdiri dari 14 Desa, terdapat 31 Kelompok Tani diambil 9 Kelompok Tani kelas Lanjut, tiap Kelompok Tani diambil 10 Petani (3 Pengurus dan 7 anggota), sehingga terdapat 90 Responden .Teknik Pengumpulan data dengan metode : wawancara, observasi dan Kuesioner. Teknik ananlisis data menggunakan formulasi yang disesuaikan dengan tujuannya. Dari data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan menggunakan: Pengukuran tendensi sentral (Median) dari setiap inti / ekor variabel ; Analisi korelasi antar variabel dan Analisis jalur (Path Analysis).
Berdasarkan analisis statistik, menunjukkan hasil-hasil sebagai berikut:
1. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kecepatan adopsi inovasi pertanian di kalangan petani di Kecamatan Gatak Kabupaten Sukoharjo, adalah : Sifat/Karakteristik Inovasi (X1) ; Sifat/Karakteristik Calon Pengguna (X2) ; Pengambil Keputusan Adopsi Inovasi (X3); Saluran Komunikasi (X4) dan Keadaan/Kualifikasi PPL (X5)
2. Berdasarkan evaluasi atas uji Kausalitas , memperlihatkan bahwa semua jalur dalam Diagram Path hanya terdapat tiga path antara variabel independent dan variabel dependent yang signifikan secara statistk pada tingkat 0,01 dan 0,05 significant level. Hal ini terlihat pada p-value <0,01 pada variable Sifat/Karakteristik Calon Pengguna (X2) dan pada p-value < 0,05 pada variable Sifat/Karakteristik Inovasi (X1) dan Saluran Komunikasi/Media yang Digunakan (X4), sedangkan Variabel Pengambil Keputusan Adopsi Inovasi (X3) dan Kualifikasi/Keadaan PPL (X5) tidak signifikan karena p-value > 0,05; akan tetapi bila dari analisa Direct effect Kualifikasi/Keadaan PPL (X5) arah pengaruhnya positif yakni 0,104 dan variable Pengambil Keputusan Adopsi Inovasi (X3), bila dari analisis Inderect effect, arah pengaruhnya positif, yaitu sebesar 0,000. Sedangkan berdasarkan analisa ANOVA dengan SPSS untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat perbedaan antara Pengurus dan Anggota Kelompok tani dalam mengdopsi inovasi yakni dengan menganalisis nilai kritis dari tabel F, dan dapat terlihat bahwa p < 0,05 sehingga hipotesa Nol dapat ditolak dan Hipotesa alternatife yang menyatakan bahwa terdapat perbedaan tingkat adopsi inovasi Pengurus dan Anggota Kelompok tani dapat diterima, yaitu F (1,88) = 47,772 ; p< 0,05.
Kata kunci: Adopsi Inovasi, Sifat/Karakteristik Inovasi; Sifat/Karakteristik Calon Pengguna; Pengambil Keputusan Adopsi Inovasi; Saluran Komunikasi dan Keadaan/Kualifikasi PPL.


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