Effects of Ethanol Extract of Propolis on Repair Optic Nerve Damage in a Rat Model for Diabetes Mellitus (Study of MDA, CRP, Caspase-3, and TGF-β Expression and Histopathological Changes on Optic Nerve Damage)

Abstract BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia in diabetes increases oxidative stress in the body. It causes optic nerve damage and the risk of glaucoma. AIM: In this study, we evaluated and analyzed the effect of propolis ethanol extract on the repair of optic nerve damage in a rat model for diabetes mellitus (DM). STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory experimental using Read More

Cost-Effectiveness of Sacubitril–Valsartan Compared to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

Abstract Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare cost-effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for treating chronic heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) from the published articles and explore the methodology applied in the studies. Methods: Systematic research was conducted in February 2021 using PubMed, Cochrane, and EBSCO. A Read More

The Influence of Implementation of Health Promotion Model Precede-Proceed Towards Growing Child, Nutritional Status, and Quality Of Life of Children

Abstract Quality of life (QoL) is a broader concept than merely measuring morbidity and mortality. The quality of life of the child is an important factor in determining the human resources (HR) in the future and requires serious attention. District worthy of children is a comprehensive structure based on the study that precede-proceed model principle Read More


ABSTRACTIn developing countries, millions of women of reproductive age do not use contraception, while research on factorsrelated to contraceptive use behavior are still lacking. The study aimed to identify the factors relate to the behaviorof contraceptive use. A cross-sectional study design was conducted from January to March 2020 in Bantul District,Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Data were Read More

Single or Divided Administration of Cisplatin Can Induce Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

Abstract BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs to treat various types of cancer, however the use of cisplatin has some the adverse effect, such as the increase of oxidative stress and inflammation by malondialdehyde (MDA) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) activation. Since the dosing of cisplatin is critical, we observed Read More